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Tag Archives: conservation

The fascinating world of letter locking

‘Letter-locking’ is a term coined by MIT conservator Jana Dambrogio, to refer to the techniques used to fold and seal shut letters. She has been investigating many different techniques by which this could be accomplished, ranging from the mainly decorative to the highly secure – so that the receiver could tell instantly if the letter had been tampered with. She has a series of videos on YouTube showing the various methods by which a letter could be locked, supplemented with detailed images on her website, and also this great blog post from the Folger which reminds us of the importance of making models if we want to understand a structure more fully. Currently she is conducting further research with Dr. Daniel Smith of Lincoln College, University of Oxford. Suddenly all those folds, creases and curious slits in the sides of old letters start to make sense…


Pterodactyls and bootprints

One of the pleasures of being a conservator is that unlike art historians, we are not necessarily restricted to the output of a particular period or country. This means that over the last few years I’ve worked with 16th century Persian manuscripts, First World War documents, and during my recent post at Tate, with a huge variety of 20th and 21st century art (including works produced within the last month!).

Possibly my favourite project whilst at Tate was the conservation of a collection of Graham Sutherland sketchbooks, which are part of the Archives holdings. The Archives at Tate are really something special: not just documents such as letters and diaries, but countless sketchbooks, drawings, studies, photographs, ephemera: often works that would be displayable as “art” in their own right. The Archives are currently involved in a project to digitise some of the collection and make it more accessible to the public, which is a wonderful thing as the images of the work will be of great benefit to researchers and the interested public. Sutherland’s sketchbooks were lovely to work with as they tell you a lot about his working processes: he would have a sketchbook per project (including one full of pterodactyls, probably associated with the painting The Origins of the Land, in Tate’s collection) and clearly worked in a very rough-and-ready way. Paint splashes everywhere, dog-eared corners, squashed spiral-bound rings, and sometimes bootprints. I imagine him in his studio with all his sketchbooks open on the floor, treading on the paper as he tries to transfer his vision to the canvas. I wrote a blog post for Tate’s own website about the project, which you can find here. Due to copyright, I haven’t reproduced any images here so do please follow the link to see!

Visible Conservation, and an Islamic Art Lecture

Whenever conservators come out from their studios and into gallery spaces the public are invariably fascinated and keen to engage with us and our slightly hidden area of work. The British Museum’s Conservation in Focus project involved setting up a temporary studio in one of the galleries so that visitors could see conservation treatments taking place and ask questions of the conservators. Whenever I visited during this exhibition, the gallery was always busy and visitors took a great interest in conservation treatments. Fine art exhibitions are starting to reflect this area of interest by including science and conservation details in the text used on interpretation panels and the materials they provide as part of the exhibition: a recent example is the Tate’s Rothko exhibition which included conservation light-boxes to display the findings of research into Rothko’s technique and materials. There is an evaluation of how visitors reacted to this information here , and this quote tells us a lot about how much this kind of in-exhibition resource is valued:

The new insights provided in this room were generally greatly appreciated, with many visitors reporting that this section changed their viewing habits in later rooms. The majority of visitors we spoke to would like similar resources in future exhibitions. Even those who were not interested in conservation were still glad that the information was available for others. Visitors tended to be surprised by this section and were not expecting this kind of content in the Rothko exhibition.

A current exhibition at the Metropolitan Museum of Art similarly uses the research and findings of conservators to inform their exhibition Making the Invisible Visible: Conservation and Islamic Art (ends August 4th). A variety of events have run alongside this exhibition, including several lectures and discussions which have  generously been made available on the website. Most of all, I would like to direct your attention to this Arts of the Book Lecture, given by Associate Conservator Yana van Dyke who is a leading expert in the field of conservation of Islamic art on paper.

Imperial War Museum podcast

At the moment I am working as a contract paper conservator for the Imperial War Museum, preparing mainly First World War objects for exhibition in the new galleries that will open next year for the Centenary. One of the advantages of working for a National Museum is the opportunity to get involved with various education and outreach activities, and talk to people outside of the studio about our work. A current project at IWM is the Young Reporters scheme, which gets children from local schools to report on IWM’s First World War Centenary plans, and look at how the Museum is transforming itself (at the moment IWM London is closed for major building works and redevelopment). As part of this project myself and my studio colleague Rachel were invited to be interviewed by a group of Young Reporters for their podcast series. I was really impressed as they seemed to already have a grasp of what conservation is (fairly unusual for 9 year olds!) and I greatly enjoyed talking to them. The interviews were a great success (you can listen to them below), and so we have decided to build on them by holding workshops for the Young Reporters next month. We will be having practical sessions in objects and paper conservation, bookbinding, and pest identification. My part will be to show them how to do tear repairs and for this we will use facsimiles of some of the WWI posters I have been working on. It’s nice to think that Lambeth will soon be full of children who know exactly what paper conservation is, unlike a lot of the rest of the population who often think I save trees when I call myself a paper conservator!

IWM London will reopen at the end of July. There is more about Transforming IWM London here.

Historic conservation techniques

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Thoughtful and considered post about historic conservation methods as found in manuscripts and books at the British Library: Look on These Works and Frown

Conservation web resources

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Today I happened across a raft of useful online conservation resources, which I thought I would highlight. In trying to remind myself of how to consult the Teas chart I discovered this handy blog by a Danish paper conservator, which gathers together lots of useful information and conservation news stories: The Media Conservator. Through her I was directed to AIC’s Teas Chart tutorial, which I had no idea existed but is an incredibly useful refresher. And whilst browsing Sophie’s other posts, I followed a link to this superb guide to silver gelatine prints and their deterioration by Gawain Weaver. I think it’s wonderful that there are so many conservators online willing to share their knowledge and expertise for free, and provide this kind of comprehensive information so that we can all continue our education.

Teas Chart

Teas Chart

Love and Devotion at the Bodleian

This week I visited the Bodleian Library’s current exhibition Love and Devotion: From Persia and Beyond, which is dedicated to illuminated manuscripts from the Persian tradition combining poetry and images. The exhibition is the perfect size for this kind of material: small enough to allow one to spend time looking closely at each object, but just big enough to leave one feeling satisfied and better informed.

Some beautiful manuscripts are on display, and the exhibition shares some wonderful stories perhaps less well-known in the Western world, such as the love stories of Layla and Majnun, Khusraw and Shirin, and Yusuf and Zulaykha. My previous post on Persian illuminations at the Chester Beatty Library features illustrations of some of these characters. I was also particularly interested to see a frontispiece signed by the master illuminator and calligrapher Ruzbihan, as whilst at the Chester Beatty Library the conservation studio spent a lot of time conserving a Qur’an signed by him. Ruzbihan came from a family of well-renowned artists and calligraphers, and as well as their skills in book arts they were also responsible for the design of various calligraphic inscriptions on buildings across Shiraz. It was said that artistic competitors of the family were “mere eaters of crumbs from their table”.

The team I worked with at the Chester Beatty are keen to continue research into the Ruzbihan Qur’an, so perhaps in the future I will have more of interest to post here. In the meantime, here is a poster I displayed recently at the Institute of Conservation’s triennial conference, which details a little about the ongoing treatment and research into this beautiful manuscript and the workshop that produced it.

The exhibition at the Bodleian finishes this weekend (April 28th), so please rush to visit it! It is also worth pointing out that their online information about the exhibition is extensive and includes high quality images, as well as a very useful interactive map and timeline.